|الكاتب: || |
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|التسجيل: || Dec 2006 |
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|بمعدل : ||2.11 يوميا |
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| كاتب الموضوع :
مؤسس المنتدى المنتدى :
جغرافية الزراعة | رد: رسالة الزراعة المحمية فى شرق الدلتا
Faculty Of Arts
Protected Agriculture in East Delta
A Geographical Evaluation
A Thesis Submitted To Obtain The Master s Degree In Arts
Department Of Geography
MOHAMED M. ABDELAAL IBRAHIM
Prof. Dr. AHMED M. ABDALLA HEMAID
Dr. ESLAM SALAMA MOHAMED
Protected Agriculture in East Delta: A Geographical Evaluation
Man has never waited for nature to bestow upon him its agricultural wealth in constant agricultural seasons. However, he, through various attempts, managed to control the agricultural environment wholly. Such attempts are represented by preparing a suitable environment for certain crops to grow in regions that are not convenient to their growth. Seeking to secure his needs for crops all over the year, especially vegetables and fruits, man cultivated winter crops in summer and vice versa. Protected agriculture is therefore one of the modern technological techniques that overcome the challenges facing unprotected agriculture; furthermore, it (i.e. protected agriculture) avails of the unity of land and water magnificently.
Indeed, the methods of protected agriculture vary greatly both in form and size. Some of these methods are mulches, tunnels and greenhouses. Plastic covers are one of the important instruments of protected agriculture, especially at the level of the regions of protected agriculture in Egypt in general and East Delta in particular. These modern methods of protected agriculture are concentrated in Lower Egypt and Coastal Governorates. As for establishing greenhouses and the areas cultivated by tunnels protected agriculture, East Delta ranks first.
Additionally, there are various uses of greenhouses and tunnels in East Delta. They are used in cultivating and producing vegetable and fruit crops, their seedlings, their hybrid seeds and finally ornamental plants. Greenhouses and tunnels are also used in fish farming. Yet vegetables, which are cultivated under partially-closed greenhouses and tunnels, are the most important produce of protected agriculture in East Delta. In East Delta, there are 19945 vegetable-producing greenhouses out of 21303 (i.e. it represents 94% of the total of greenhouses). In 2006, there were 18420 feddans cultivated by tunnels.
The techniques of protected agriculture, in East Delta, play an important role in cultivating and producing important vegetable crops such as cucumber, pepper, tomatoes, Cantaloupe, strawberry, . . . etc. These crops are cultivated in certain climatic intervals when unprotected fields are inconvenient for them to grow (this occurs in winter). Hence, they are produced earlier than their casual season, and they become available in markets serving both consumers and traders. Also, these crops can be exported to foreign markets, namely the European and Arab markets, where these crops cannot be cultivated due to inconvenient climate.
East Delta is one of the main regions that implemented and expanded protected agriculture in Egypt. Stylistically, greenhouses and the areas cultivated by protected agriculture are geographically concentrated in certain regions. The eastern part of East Delta represents 90% of the total of areas of protected agriculture in East Delta, i.e. in Ismalia, Suez and the newly reclaimed regions in Sharkia. In most regions, the main season for producing these protected-agriculture-based crops is winter; however, the production season of seedlings-producing greenhouses can be extended to fall.
In East Delta - namely in Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate- cucumber is the most important vegetable crop cultivated in greenhouses. Tomatoes, however, is the most important vegetable crop cultivated in tunnels, especially in Ismalia, and Altal Alkbeer and Fakous in Sharkia Governorate. The areas of protected agriculture , cultivated under tunnels, are owned by the private sector (individuals); however, the areas cultivated under greenhouses are shared out between the governmental and private sectors. The greenhouses owned by the governmental sector are centered in Suez and Ismalia.
In Egypt, the areas of protected agriculture, cultivated by greenhouses, are placed among the mono-use agricultural possessions. In East Delta, the percentage of areas of protected agriculture, cultivated by greenhouses and placed among the mono-use agricultural possessions, and that of the areas placed among the multiple-use agricultural possessions are nearly the same. The areas of protected agriculture, cultivated by greenhouses and placed among the mono-use agricultural possession are centered on Suez. In East Delta, the average of feddan production from greenhouses vegetables is 42 tons; this average is six times more than that of the unprotected field which is 7.6 tons. Regarding the production of greenhouses vegetables in East Delta , Alhusinia and Aga are the most highly productive centers; their production of greenhouses vegetables is 120 and 103 tons respectively. The 540 cm2-greenhouse is the most widespread in East Delta.
The success and continuity of protected agriculture in East Delta are subject to various factors taking into consideration that this type of agriculture is carried out through simple means: covering with plastic and cloth. Indeed, various factors affect protected agriculture in East Delta. One of these factors is natural geography, especially soil. Sandy and sandy-clay soils are the most convenient to cultivate the protected vegetable crops; therefore they are widespread in the eastern region of East Delta owing to suitable soils and contour lines levels.
Another factor encouraging the continuity of protected agriculture in the eastern region of East Delta is climate. Relative warmth, sun rays, low humidity and some cold waves occurring in this region in particular (i.e. the eastern region of East Delta ), especially in winter, encourage to benefit from protected agriculture using either plastic or cloth covers or both of them. Besides, strong winds attacking these regions harmfully affect vegetables in uncovered fields; therefore, in order to protect them, they must be covered.
Equally important, one of the human and economic factors that affect protected agriculture in East Delta is the farmers' culture that moves them to cultivate vegetables, and their wide experience in cultivating vegetables in uncovered fields. These factors led farmers smoothly to adopt the modern techniques of agriculture. Water resources, both Nile water and groundwater, encourage protected agriculture in East Delta, especially in the eastern parts. Moreover, East Delta is near to the urban heavily populated regions which are the most important markets for the products of protected agriculture.
Furthermore, the governmental orientation, through the National Programs adopted by the Ministry of Agriculture, effectuates the application of protected agriculture in East Delta. The first of these programs was addressed to Ismalia Governorate in 1998s. Also, trained and expert laborers in these regions encouraged producers and farmers to adopt the protected agriculture techniques.
Due to the huge capital invested in establishing greenhouses and their production costs, the production costs of vegetable crops, protected by greenhouses, are remarkably higher than those of uncovered fields. However, the costs of tunnels are lower than those of greenhouses. Yet the total income and net revenue of using greenhouses and tunnels in agriculture cover the costs in a short time varying pursuant to crop type. Cucumber, due to its high productivity and rapid production and marketing, is the most promising crop that is cultivated under greenhouses. Similarly, tomatoes is the most promising crop that is cultivated under tunnels.
Protected agriculture, in East Delta, encounters various problems such as the costly and unqualified production requisites. Other problems are due to the funding process. However, 85% of the study sample expressed their inclination to expand the use of greenhouses in agriculture; however, 91% of the sample favored the use of tunnels.
Protected Agriculture in East Delta: A Geographical Evaluation
The current study is aimed at determining to what extent does protected agriculture, which is one of the highly productive means of agricultural intensification, participate in agricultural production in East Delta. Basically, it is also aimed at studying the general aspects of the geographical distribution of protected agriculture in East Delta , the factors affecting this distribution, counting the different uses of protected agriculture in East Delta, determining its economic value, comparing it to uncovered agriculture, identifying the problems that encounter protected agriculture un East Delta and finally predicting its future in East Delta from the farmer's perspectives.
Regarding the regions of protected agriculture in Egypt, the study shows that East Delta, where there are various uses of greenhouses and tunnels, ranks first. Cucumber and tomatoes are the most important vegetable crops cultivated under greenhouses and tunnels respectively. Stylistically, the areas cultivated by protected agriculture are geographically concentrated in certain regions; the eastern part of East Delta represents 90% of the total of such areas.
The spread and continuity of this technique (i.e. protected agriculture) in East Delta are ascribed to various factors. The most important of these factors are climate, especially in winter which is the main season of protected agriculture in East Delta and sandy soil that is convenient for the crops of protected agriculture. Furthermore, the human and economic factors encouraging this technique of agriculture, especially in the eastern part of East Delta, varies greatly. Some of these human and economic factors are farmers' wide experience, a complex network of different roads that facilitate the process of transporting production requisites and products to markets, various water resources and five-year-experienced laborers in the area of protected agriculture. the governmental role, through supporting this agricultural technique from its beginnings, is equally important. Despite the high costs of investment and production in the area of protected agriculture, its revenue is higher than that of the unprotected agriculture ,and therefore, it covers all the costs securing a great profit for both producers and farmers.