24-05-2012, 03:33 PM
المشاركة رقم: 4 |
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|التسجيل: || Dec 2006 |
|العضوية: ||7 |
|المشاركات: || 7,819 [+] |
|بمعدل : ||2.08 يوميا |
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|معدل التقييم: ||3922 |
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| كاتب الموضوع :
مؤسس المنتدى المنتدى :
الجغرافية الطبية | رد: مرض السرطان في محافظة الغربية دراسة في الجغرافيا الطبية
The increasing magnitude of cancer burden represents one of the major health challenges to the world in the new century (Cancer diseases became the second cause of death after heart & cardiovascular diseases in the developed countries, and the fourth cause in most of the developing countries). So this topic was chosen as one of the applied medical geography subjects, which contribute to solving health problems specially in the developing countries.
Gharbiah governorate is located in the middle of the Nile Delta. So it has a unique entity different from the other environments in Egypt both physically and culturally that makes it a fertile field of study specially it is often said that 80 - 90% of human cancers are due to environmental factors. In the study area there is the first population-based Cancer registry in Egypt (established in 1998), and Tanta Cancer center which provides us with the good indicator to make suitable Cancer prevention programs in this area.
This study falls into five chapters:-
Chapter (1): is concerned with “the environmental entity of the study area”; It studies the morphology of study area, the metrology & hydrology factors, the human and cultural factors. It has attempted to determine the carcinogenic effect of these factors on cancer incidence in the study area.
Chapter (2): has studied “the spatial pattern of Cancer in the study area”. It has studied the hierarchy of cancer in the study area, the special differentiation of cancer in the study area, and cancer patterns in Nile Delta, Egypt, and some regions of the developed and developing countries. It has also focused on the special differentiation of cancers between distracts, rural & urban in the governorate, the cancer sites and the variable characteristic of population, and then Childhood cancer.
Chapter (3): is concerned with “the temporal analysis of Cancer in the study area”. internal, growth of cancer incidence, differentiation of the speed of cancer transformation, the mean duration which patient present to treatment, the secondary cancer and Its temporal analysis, and temporal analysis of childhood cancer.
Chapter (4): is devoted to “Cancer Mortality & Survival rates in the study area”. It studies the classification of cancer types according to survival rates, cancer as a cause of death in the study area, the relation between improving life span and increasing cancer survival & mortality, and Childhood cancer mortality & survival rates.
Chapter (5): is entitled “A futurist overview of Cancer control in the study area”. It focuses on, Cancer control programs such as prevention programs (keeping up & sustainable environment programs, behavior modify programs as tobacco control, infection control, healthy eating), early detection & diagnosis of cancer and population screening, as well as treatment programs.
The conclusion: includes the results of the study and the most important recommendations including the following:
1. the main reasons of the higher cancer rates in the study area includes:
a. The spread of the urban culture related to smoking.
b. The increase of fats and carbohydrates in the daily meals.
c. The rise of the average of marriage age.
d. Air, water, and food pollution.
e. Infection by communicable diseases such as schistosomiasis and hepatitis (B,C).
2. Cancers have target males, ratios (1.05 male :1 female). The males’ hit ratio peaked in the urinary system cancers (3.4 M: 1 F). On the other hand, females hit ratio peaked in the breast cancer (1 M:100 F). The disease has also targeted old people and the middle age group, but the average patients age was 10 years lower than in Europe and USA.
3. Cancer pattern in Gharbiah governorate represents the cancer pattern in Egypt. It represents a transition pattern between the developed and developing countries where the cancers of breast, bladder, liver, lymphoma as well as leukemia represent half of the total cancer cases in the study area.
4. The incidence rate in the biggest urban distracts “Tanta” (105.8/100,000) has increased to almost double the rates in the other Eastern distracts of the governorate, where there is a lower level of incidence. On the other hand, the incidence rates in the northern and western distracts have also risen to (80.5 -73.8/100,000) due to variance of the carcinogenic factors.
5. A summarized map was created through which the patterns in each of the governorate villages can be realized easily. The governorate has been divided into 10 areas depending on the patterns.
6. There has been a decrease in childhood cancer ratio to 4.3% of the total cancer cases. The leukemia was the highest type of cancer in children followed by lymphoma cancer. The incidence rate peaks in “Kotoor” and “Tanta” distract.
7. The increasing of mean duration which patient present to treatment caused a relapse of his health. This decreases the efficiency of the treatment. It was also found out that the primary medical systems available in the study area was the main reason behind the late detection of cancer. The next reason was the patients themselves, and the shortage of qualified doctors.
8. The death rate due to cancer has increased in the area representing the huge improvement in the diagnosis of cancer specially at the end of the twentieth century. Moreover, the improvement in the lifespan was closely related to the increase in cancer incidence rates. On the other hand, Childhood cancer death rates have declined.
9. When looking at the priorities of Cancer control, it was clear that the area needs:
a) Environmental improvement programs.
b) Programs for modifying the lifestyle and behavior related to disease.
c) Increasing the improved awareness programs for the early detection of cancer.
d) The area also needs improving the treatment centers only available in the capital city. These centers are missing in the other governorate distracts. The centers need to be extended and improved due to the prospective population increase.